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Breast and Cervical Cancer Control Program

Cervical Cancer

Cancer is a disease in which cells in the body grow out of control. Cancer is always named for the part of the body where it starts, even if it spreads to other body parts later. When cancer starts in the cervix, it is called cervical cancer. The cervix is the lower, narrow end of the uterus. Also known as the womb, the uterus is where a baby grows when a woman is pregnant. The cervix connects the upper part of the uterus to the vagina (birth canal).

Each year more than 350 North Carolina women are diagnosed with cervical cancer and over 100 die from the condition. The majority of these deaths occur in women over age 45.


Some warning signs of cervical cancer are:

  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding
  • Increased vaginal discharge
  • Pelvic pain
  • Pain during sexual intercourse

Changes and early cancers of the cervix generally do not cause pain or other symptoms. Do not wait until you feel pain before seeing a doctor. Infections or other health problems may also cause these symptoms. Only a doctor can tell for sure.

Risk Factors

Research has found several risk factors that may increase your chances of getting cervical cancer. Risk factors that increase the risk of developing cervical cancer include:

  • HPV Infection - Some strains of HPV are high risk and can cause cervical cancer or abnormal cell changes of the cervix.
  • Lack of regular Pap tests - Cervical cancer is more common among women who do not have regular Pap tests. The Pap test helps doctors find precancerous cells. Treating precancerous cell changes often prevents cancer.
  • HIV Infection or weakened immune system
  • Age - Occurs most often in women over 40
  • Sexual History - Many sexual partners
  • Smoking - Women who smoke are about twice as likely as non-smokers to get cervical cancer.
  • Oral Contraceptives - Long term use
  • Family history of cervical cancer - Cervical cancer may run in some families. If your mother or sister had cervical cancer, your chances of developing the disease are increased by 2 to 3 times.

Reducing Risk

Most cervical cancer can be prevented. There are 2 ways to prevent this disease. The first way is to prevent pre-cancers. This is best done by avoiding risk factors.

Young women can delay starting to have sex until they are older. Women of all ages can protect against HPV by having few sexual partners and not having sex with people who have had many partners.

There are now vaccines that can protect people against HPV. So far, vaccines that protect against certain types of HPV have been shown to work in preventing most genital warts. Right now vaccines are only used to prevent, not treat, an HPV infection. For more information see the CDC’s HPV Vaccine page.


Two screening tests can help prevent cervical cancer or find it early:

  • The Pap test (or Pap smear) looks for precancers, cell changes on the cervix that might become cervical cancer if they are not treated appropriately.
  • The HPV test looks for the virus (human papillomavirus) that can cause these cell changes.

Both tests can be done in a doctor’s office or clinic. During the Pap test, the doctor will use a plastic or metal instrument, called a speculum, to widen your vagina. This helps the doctor examine the vagina and the cervix, and to collect a few cells and mucus from the cervix and the area around it. The cells are sent to a laboratory.

  • If you are getting a Pap test, the cells will be checked to see if they look normal.
  • If you are getting an HPV test, the cells will be tested for HPV.

Tips for Getting a Pap Test

Here are some things you can do to make your Pap test more accurate:

  • Try not to have the test during your period.
  • Do not douche for 48 hours before the test.
  • Do not have sex for 48 hours before the test.
  • Do not use tampons, birth control foams, jellies or other vaginal creams or medicines for 48 hours before the test.


If a woman has one or more symptoms or screening results that suggest cancer, the doctor will suggest further tests to diagnose or rule out cancer. These include:

  • Colposcopy - Combines a bright light with a magnifying lens to make tissue of the cervix easier to see. This test is usually done in a doctor’s office or clinic.
  • Biopsy - Tissue is removed from the cervix to help find out if there is cancer. The tissue is then tested with a microscope.


There are three treatment options for cervical cancer.

  • Surgery - An operation to remove the tumor and/or the area affected by the cancer (all or part of the cervix, ovaries, uterus, etc.)
  • Radiation Therapy - Uses high-energy rays to kill cancer cells.
  • Chemotherapy - Uses anticancer drugs to kill cancer.


Cervical Cancer: Basic Info. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved on July 29, 2019 from

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